The SUBMARINER Network in Russia

The Blue Economy serves as a framework and policy for sustainable marine economic activities as well as new marine-based technologies in Russia. In 2015, the Russian Federation adopted a new maritime doctrine, the main goal of which is to realize the state's maritime potential and to manage the sectors of the economy and science related to maritime activities. In 2017, marine biotechnology was included in the state programme. These documents contain the key principles for developing the Blue Economy in Russia - the introduction of innovations, the search for new territory for development, the development of human capital, the creation of new jobs, the efficiency and zero waste of production, the use of local resources, as well as the maximum implementation of the principles of the Blue Economy in the development programs of coastal territories.

The implementation of these programmes will ensure the growth of regional indicators of the economy, an increase in the number of jobs, the involvement of new, including secondary resources in the economy, but at the same time ensuring the economic interests of a society with a good environmental quality and sustainable biodiversity. Programmes of development of coastal regions are directed to stimulate the growth of the marine industry indicators, aquaculture and fisheries, renewable energy production, biotechnology and tourism. Russia was an associated partner of the AQUAFIMA project in 2010-2013 and is currently involved as a partner in the Blue Platform project.

In the Baltic Sea, Russia has two regions - the Leningrad Oblast (LEN) and the Kaliningrad Oblast (KGD). These regions are separated from each other by the territories of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. These regions have been actively introducing the principles of the Blue Economy into their development programmes over the past few years and are participating in programmes to preserve the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. The largest industries in Russia are fisheries, sea food production, shipbuilding, logistics, processing industry and tourism. Fisheries and the Blue Bioeconomy are supported by federal and regional programmes and strategies. 

Key Facts

  • Area: 15,1258 km2(KGD) and 83,908 (LEN) km2
  • Coastline 150 km (KGD) and over 700 km (LEN) 
  • Population: 7.8 million (Leningrad oblast (LEN) with population of 6.8 million (including St. Petersburg citizen about 5.0 million) and Kaliningrad oblast (KGD) with population 1.0 million)
  • 2 regions & 41 municipalities (including St. Petersburg)
  • Total catch in the Baltic Sea and inland waters - more than 718,000 t. 
  • Aquaculture production for restocking 3.7 million fingerlings per year 
  • The volume of production of fish products by all enterprises of the regions amounted to 8.8 thousand tons (without fingerlings)

Aquaculture in Russia

  • The Russian government identified aquaculture as a top priority sector within the agriculture industry. It is a relatively young sector and contributes to 4% of the country’s fish production. However, the sector started to gain traction and now it's considered as a rapidly developed sector, showing 29% growth during the last 5 years. Market size 2018: 232 000 t (+7%). Plan for 2030: 700 000 t. Local and foreign private investors show great interest in large aquaculture projects. Carp, trout, salmon and sturgeon are the 4 main species in aquaculture production in Russia.
  • Russia has vast water resources that are suitable for aquaculture development, but only a small percent of them is in business use so far. The State Federal Agency for Fisheries by May 2019 allocated 3 700 water sites of the total area 500 000 hectare started to actively prepare more water sites for fish farming to be allocated through the auction system.
  • There are about 3,000 farms in total operating in the aquaculture industry. 72% of them are pond and pasture farms, 25% are industrial (where 5% share is mariculture and 1% is RAS). 62% of all farm enterprises produce less then 10 tons of fish, and only 1% of them has production volume over 1,000 t.
  • Aquaculture in Russia has some problems hampering the strong development of this business: this is the legislative base, which already needs revision and update, lack of enough volumes and high quality of local fish feed and hatcheries, not enough good roads approaching water sites for fish farms, insufficient funding and financing, lacking large and strong industrial associations capable to lobby and protect interests of aquaculture business on the top level, lack of well-educated personnel capable to operate modern industrial fish farms.



  • However, the ambitious goal of Russian government is to increase fish consumption in the country from 12-14 kg/capita/annum to 23 kg/capita/annum, targeted the aquaculture sector to increase the local production up to 410 000 tons by 2020 and up to 700 000 tons by 2030.
  • This shows huge market potential for investors, suppliers of fish farming technologies, international expertise to find the niche market in Russia and to increase sales.
  • Several Norwegian suppliers of marine, fresh-water and land-based technology, equipment, nets, fish feed, software, genetics, services, etc. has been already involved in setting up marine and land-based sites for salmonids, having track record of sales in Murmansk, Karelia and other Russian regions.

Reports and national websites

    • State Programme “Development of fishing complex of Russia Federation” (2014, 2017)
    • The concept of development of fisheries of the Russian Federation for the period until 2020(2003)
    • The Strategy for the development of the fishery complex of the Russian Federation until 2030 (2019)
    • Programme for the development of biotechnologies until 2020 (2017)
    • State programme "Economic development and innovative economy" (2014)
    • State programme of the Kaliningrad region "Tourism" (2013)
    • Strategy of socio-economic development of the Leningrad region until 2030 (2016)
    • Federal target programme for the Development of the Kaliningrad region for the period up to 2020 (2013)


  • TACIS 2006/289 “Development of scientific-technical support for reproduction of fish stocks in trans-boundary water of Lithuania and Russia”

  • TEMPUS JEP_26047_2005 “Curriculum Development for Competence Promotion in Environmental Management and Production Integrated Environmental Protection”

  • TEMPUS JEP 2012 - 3051/ 001 – 001 ”Tuning environmental competences in Russian fishery education for sustainable development (TUNA)

State regulation and development of Fisheries and Aquaculture

    • Federal Law ”On Fisheries and Fish Stock Protection” (2004-2016)
    • Federal Law ”On Aquaculture” (2019)
    • Federal Law ”On Recreation Fisheries” (2019)
    • Water Code (2006, 2019)
    • Federal Law “On protection of Environment” (2002)

Good Practices from Russia


SUBMARINER Network for Blue Growth EEIG

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